Which of the following statements holds true for the term regularized discrimination (2023)

  • In her work with the Kaluli, Shieffelin identified the speech event Elema. This is a speech event in which:
  • A. children learn how to tease their elders

    B. caregivers teach children what replies are appropriate in particular situations

    C. children learn forms of address

    D. children learn vocabulary

  • Which of the following is one teaching technique Kaluli adults use in Elema exchanges with children?
  • A. verbal praise

    B. reinforcement and positive rewards

    C. shaming

    D. punishment

  • The techniques caregivers use during Elema exchanges reinforce which of the following Kaluli culturally valued behaviors?
  • A. being passive

    B. competition

    C. independence

    D. being assertive

  • According to Tomasello, there is one important difference between animal and human communication. It is:
  • A. humans can communicate emotions

    B. animals cancommunicate emotions

    C. animals communicate to ensure their own welfare

    D. humans communicate to ensure their own welfare

  • Animal communication often uses visual, auditory, chemical, electrical means to convey information. These are examples of:
  • A. a symbol

    B. a signal

    C. a non-verbal gesture

    D. nonverbal communication

  • In some countries, a red heart communicates the emotion love. Objects that are made to represent something elseare:
  • A. symbols

    B. signals

    C. gestures

    D. vocalizations

  • Our body posture, gestures, and eye gaze or examples of:
  • A. signals

    B. nonverbal communication

    C. verbal communication

    D. computer mediated communication

  • Jenna and Liza are discussing an open, rule governed communication system that uses symbols to convey meaning. They are discussing:
  • A. signals

    B. symbols

    C. grammar

    D. language

  • All languages have a system of rules that helps speakers understand how to combine words to convey meaning. This system of rules is a:
  • A. semantic

    B. symbol

    C. grammar

    D. syntax

  • In many of the Romance languages, the adjective often follows the noun it describes or modifies. The arrangement of words and sentences is an example of:
  • A. semantics

    B. grammar

    C. signal

    D. syntax

  • Some words can have more than onemeaning. For example, the word crash can refer to an auto accident or decline in the stock market. The meaning of words in a particular language relates to which of the following?
  • A. semantics

    B. grammar

    C. signal

    D. syntax

  • What is the term for the smallest meaningful unit of sound in a language?
  • A. morpheme

    B. semantics

    C. phoneme

    D. syntax

  • Ye-jun is a young Korean child learning about the importance of honorificswhen speaking to others. The term for honorifics that relate to the person about who one is speaking is:
  • A. a signal

    B. a symbol

    C. referent honorifics

    D. addressee honorifics

  • The Korean language has six levels of honorifics that speakers must master. Which honorific relates to the speakers’ relationship to the listener?
  • A. a signal

    B. a symbol

    C. referent honorifics

    D. addressee honorifics

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  • You believe that humanslearn language the way they do some other skills and abilities - through experience. With which theorist would you agree?
  • A. Chomsky

    B. Piaget

    C. Vygotsky

    D. Skinner

  • Skinner argued that children would be likely to repeat sounds if they were followed by a pleasurable response. This viewpoint has its foundation in:
  • A. the language acquisition device

    B. the nativist theory

    C. operant conditioning

    D. observational learning

  • You believe that human beings are born with the capacity to acquire language. Your belief aligns with which of the following models?
  • A. operant conditioning

    B. nativism

    C. the language acquisition device

    D. reinforcement

  • Chomsky believed that individuals were able to extract the rules of a language simply from hearing a language spoken and without any type of learning. The ability to do this connects to which of the following?
  • A. operantconditioning

    B. reinforcement

    C. radical behaviorism

    D. the language acquisition device

  • Which of the following supports the nativist position in language acquisition?
  • A. children repeat sounds they hear

    B. children imitate adult language speakers

    C. all infants coo and babble

    D. children acquire vocabulary through selective reinforcement

  • When infants and very young children live in environments where they have no exposureto or experience with language, their language development is severely limited. These limitations are not reversible. This supports which of the following terms?
  • A. sensitive periods of development

    B. semantics

    C. syntax

    D. nativism

  • The ability to communicate in particular cultural learning environments is an example of:
  • A. syntax

    B. semantics

    C. communicative competence

    D. radical behaviorism

  • You live in a communitythat emphasizes directness, logical thinking, gathering facts, and the value of autonomy. Your community is most likely a:
  • A. high context culture

    B. low context culture

    C. traditional community

    D. rural community

  • You live in a community that emphasizes interdependent relations, establishing trust, conforming to social norms, and indirect communication. Your community is most likely a
  • A. high context culture

    B. low context culture

    C. traditional community

    D. rural community

  • Individuals who live in high context cultures rarely used direct communication strategies. Rather they rely on:
  • A. verbal cues

    B. contextual cues

    C. direct confrontation

    D. direct eye contact

  • Which of the following is a high context culture?
  • A. Germany

    B. the United States

    C. Norway

    D. Japan

  • Which of the following is a low context culture?
  • A. Japan

    B. China

    C. India

    D. Sweden

  • Which of the following is likely to occur in a high context culture?
  • A. asking a boss “are you sure this is what you want and meant?

    B. directly confronting a colleague at work

    C. questioning a boss’ decision

    D. avoiding a verbal argument to save a colleague at work from embarrassment

  • Clancy’s work illustrates how cultural settings shaped the way children construct their speech and gestures toreveal motives and desires. What is one salient cultural difference between Japanese and English speakers?
  • A. most Japanese speakers use more command words that most English speakers do

    B. most Japanese speakers use more declarative words than most English teachers do

    C. most Japanese speakers speak considerably less than most English speakers do

    D. most Japanese speakers used direct forms of communication more than most English speakers do

  • According toClancy, children learn cultural scripts through their language exchanges with caregivers and adults. Japanese children learn that arguing and giving someone a direct order will not meet with adult approval because it violates the principle of empathy. Which concept reflects the Japanese experience of empathy?
  • A. omiyari

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    B. amae

    C. lonne

    D. tatemae

  • In the Japanese experience, amae relates to obligation and kindness to indulge another’s request. Amae is asocial strategy in which the requester asked for a very atypical favor. Amae is important in Japanese communication exchanges because:
  • A. it reinforces empathy

    B. reinforces respect for elders

    C. reinforces group harmony

    D. helps speakers learn to anticipate that listeners will be able to understand the speaker’s feelings and motives

  • In their study on Argentinian, Japanese, French, and American mother-infant conversational exchanges, Bornstein andcolleagues found:
  • A. as a group, Argentinian mothers used more indirect speech than any other group

    B. as a group US mothers used more commands as a way to structure learning context in conversation than any other group

    C. mothers in all cultural groups converse more with older children than with their infants

    D. Japanese mothers were less responsive to their children than mothers in any other group

  • Crying, cooing, and babbling are all examples of whichstage of language development?
  • A. pre-linguistic

    B. linguistic

    C. referential

    D. expressive

  • Around 2 to 3 months of age, infants are capable of producing open vowel sounds. These sounds are examples of:
  • A. babbling

    B. cooing

    C. one-word utterances

    D. morphemes

  • Enrique is a seventh month old infant. He is now making vocalizations that combine consonants and vowels. He is communicating using which of the following?
  • A. cooing

    B. phonemes

    C. linguistic speech

    D. babbling

  • Which of the following IS TRUE regarding infants abilities to discriminate sounds?
  • A. infants never acquire the ability to recognize sounds that do not belong to their native language

    B. infants can only recognize the sounds of their native language when they hear verbal speech

    C. somewhere between 2-3 months infants are able to distinguish sounds they hear frequently in theirnative language from other unfamiliar sounds

    D. somewhere between 10-12 months babies are better at distinguishing sounds they hear frequently while weeding out unnecessary sounds

  • Isabella is fluent in six different languages. Her language ability makes her a:
  • A. bilingual speaker

    B. polyglot

    C. monolingual speaker

    D. linguist

  • Katie is thinking about taking a foreign language while she is a university student. Which of the followingIS TRUE about language learning?
  • A. all individuals are similar in their ability to learn different languages

    B. you can only learn a language while you are young

    C. you can learn a language at any age but it is easier to do so while you are younger

    D. you can only learn two languages throughout your lifetime

  • Neuroscience has contributed to our understanding of language acquisition. Which of the following IS TRUE?
  • A. learning alanguage later in life has no cognitive benefits

    B. if you learn different languages at birth, the same brain region will process those languages

    C. language learning decreases gray matter

    D. language learning leads to white matter decay in the brain

  • The process by which children are socialized both through and to use language within a community relates to:
  • A. enculturation

    B. assimilation

    C. accommodation

    D. languagesocialization

  • Language socialization functions to teach children all of the following EXCEPT:
  • A. knowledge about cultural norms

    B. knowledge about mind in culture

    C. knowledge about cultural practices

    D. how to produce speech

  • A caregiver is talking to a young child and using simple speech, a higher pitch, and changes in intonation. This is an example of:
  • A. cooing

    B. babbling

    C. linguistic speech

    D. childdirected speech

  • In their work on language socialization, Ochs and Schieffelin believe that across cultures adults and older children engage in which of the following with younger children:
  • A. cooing

    B. babbling

    C. child directed speech

    D. over-regulation

  • In English, to make a noun plural you typically add an S. There are exceptions. For example the plural for the noun foot is feet. When a child uses the word foots instead of feet, the child’sspeech reflects which of the following?
  • A. cooing

    B. over-regularization

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    C. babbling

    D. pre-linguistic speech

  • The idea that language determines the way we think about and perceive the world relates to:
  • A. the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

    B. linguistic relativity

    C. language socialization

    D. language acquisition

  • Which of the following IS TRUE about the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
  • A. language and culture areseparate and independent

    B. language is not necessary to help people organize their world

    C. this hypothesis is widely unsupported today

    D. if a language possessed no term for an object speakers would have no trouble in thinking about that object

  • The view that language reflects rather than determines our thinking and perceptions relates to:
  • A. the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

    B. linguistic relativity

    C. language socialization

    D. languageacquisition

  • The Pirahā speak a language that provides no numerical terms beyond the number two. Many Pirahā speakers experience difficulty when trying to learn new numerical concepts. This supports which of the following positions?
  • A. the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

    B. linguistic relativity

    C. language learning through reinforcement

    D. nativism

  • Contemporary researchers are proposing new ways to study the relationship between language, culture, andcognition. These include all the following EXCEPT:
  • A. culturally situated thinking styles

    B. language biases

    C. environmental influences

    D. language vocabularies

  • Guiora and colleagues studied the relationship between children’s acquisition of gender identity and their languages’ gender terms. Child native speakers in Finland, Israel and the United States were participants. They found:
  • A. the Finnish language had the most gender terms

    B.Hebrew had the least gender terms

    C. Hebrew speaking children acquired gender identity earlier than the other two groups

    D. Finnish speaking children acquired gender identity earlier than the other two groups

  • According to Sohn, one important function of language is:
  • A. to help convey meaning about our social relationships

    B. to teach cultural norms

    C. to teach about gender roles

    D. language socialization

  • Corsaro and Rizzo studiedwhich of the following cultural routines to learn how Italian children use language to convey social status and power?
  • A. child directed speech

    B. discussione

    C. peer culture

    D. preschool activities

  • According to Corsaro and Rizzo, participating in simple discussions at play time help children do all the following EXCEPT:
  • A. share their experiences

    B. develop a sense of belonging with peers

    C. learn grammatically correctresponses

    D. construct and produce meaning about friendship

  • You have an interest in studying topics such as code-mixing, code-switching, children’s language, and secret languages. Which of the following disciplines studies these topics?
  • A. sociology

    B. sociolinguistics

    C. anthropology

    D. cultural psychology

  • In Portugal, there are numerous regional variations of Portuguese that standard Portuguese speakers can understand. These regionalvariations relate to:
  • A. code-mixing

    B. code-switching

    C. dialects

    D. sociolinguistics

  • When monolingual speakers move from formal to informal modes of speech in the same spoken or gestured idea, they are engaging in:
  • A. sociolinguistics

    B. code-switching

    C. code-mixing

    D. dialects

  • Tomás was speaking in Spanish to his peers in his classroom. When his teacher called on him, he immediately replied to her in English.This is an example of:
  • A. code-switching

    B. sociolinguistics

    C. code-mixing

    D. dialects

  • Which of the following IS NOT a reason why an individual would code switch?
  • A. people opt for the language with which they are most comfortable

    B. to highlight the native language

    C. for group solidarity

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    D. to help people construct their cultural identity

  • Sometimes people combine elements of different languages in the samesentence. This is an example of:
  • A. sociolinguistics

    B. code-switching

    C. code-mixing

    D. dialects

  • Which speaker would be most likely to engage in code-mixing?
  • A. Jack, a monolingual adult

    B. Jane, a bilingual adult

    C. Abby, a bilingual child

    D. David, a monolingual child

  • There are many French speaking residents of Québec, Canada who refuse to speak English even though English is Canada’s primary language. Why mightthis be so?
  • A. speaking French solidifies their cultural identity

    B. not every speaker can be bilingual

    C. all public and government information in Canada is in French

    D. French is widely spoken throughout Canada

  • Morris and Jones’ work in language socialization in the United Kingdom suggests that:
  • A. there is no support for the Welsh language from schools and the government

    B. the number of Welsh speaking children is increasing

    C.fathers are responsible for teaching their children the Welsh language

    D. caregivers raised in Welsh speaking households highly value the Welsh language and provide opportunities for their children to learn and speak it

  • Chen’s first language was Mandarin. Since arriving to the United States he no longer speaks Mandarin and only speaks English. When the new second language completely replaces the native language this is an example of:
  • A. bilingualism

    B.subtractive bilingualism

    C. code-mixing

    D. code-switching

  • Bilaniuk studied language attitudes in the Ukraine. Which of the following IS TRUE?
  • A. contemporary Ukrainians connect language to Ukrainian ethnic identity

    B. Ukrainian is the official language in most schools

    C. most government officials are fluent in pure Ukrainian

    D. speaking pure Ukrainian leads to better jobs and greater prestige

  • Ochs and Schieffelin’s work withHaitian children in New York City supports which of the following statements?
  • A. maintaining fluency in Kreyol is extremely important to Haitian parents

    B. maintaining fluency in Kreyol connects to academic success

    C. Haitian children are becoming less fluent in Kreyol due to their parents emphasis upon learning and speaking English

    D. speaking Kreyol does not connect to Haitian ethnic identity

  • Which of the following IS NOT an example of nonverbalcommunication?
  • A. eye gaze

    B. hand gesture

    C. body posture

    D. a video chat

  • Individuals who are blind from birth display the same facial expressions as cited individuals when presented with emotional stimuli or prompts. This supports which of the following statements?
  • A. there is some support for universal facial expressions

    B. nonverbal communication is mediated exclusively by cultural factors

    C. there is no interaction betweenfacial expressions and biological mechanisms

    D. nature and nurture do not interact in shaping our nonverbal behaviors

  • Many researchers agree that the connection between nonverbal behavior and cultural experiences begins?
  • A. in infancy

    B. at birth

    C. in childhood

    D. later in life

  • When communicating on social media, individuals lose the ability or opportunity to read all of the following EXCEPT:
  • A. facial expressions

    B. bodyposture

    C. eye gaze

    D. text

  • What is one difference between face-to-face interactions and electronic communication?
  • A. they involve a sender and receiver

    B. you cannot access contextual cues

    C. they are similar with respect to voice quality

    D. it is easy to distinguish if an individual is serious or joking

  • Which of the following IS TRUE about eye gaze?
  • A. it requires a verbal component

    B. it is a culturaluniversal behavior

    C. it does not occur along with body posture

    D. it is culture specific

  • In Pakistan, it is proper to look at individuals without turning away for a long period of time during social interactions. The duration and direction of your stare relates to:
  • A. sociolinguistics

    B. eye gaze

    C. dialects

    D. body posture

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